The Germans used these troops to combat many revolts against their rule. German control of Togoland dates back to February 1884 when a group of German soldiers kidnapped chiefs in Anecho, in present-day south-Eastern Togo and forced them into negotiations among the German warship Sophie. Eventually, when the Germans believed the time was right to assert more control, they began disputing the Herero claims over land. Why did South Africa colonized Namibia?  Perhaps this increased German brutality in East Africa, as Europeans would go to extreme measures to ensure their supply of raw materials. Countries like Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, other powers were losing money, and Africa appeared to be a way out of the depression. This led to a change from allied to adversarial relationships between some African leaders and the Germans. According to Jean-Marie Kamatali, Ubuhake, a social system in which the Hutus worked in the service of Tutsis in exchange for cattle, characterized relations between the two peoples. However, it was a combination of forced labor and excessive taxation imposed on the Togolanders that created these. While Europeans and Africans had established relationships in a variety of settings for centuries, the 1880s mark a major turning point in European attitudes toward Africa. By 1900, when the force of the quick colonization was over, the majority of the land in Africa was divided up amongst seven different European colonizing nations: Britain, France, Spain, Germany, Belgium, Italy, and Portugal. Germany did, in 1885. The company did not waste any time in dispatching eighteen expeditions to make treaties expanding its territories in East Africa, but these moves by the Germans stirred hostility in the region. When Hitler formally renounced "colonies" in 1935, he meant "overseas" colonies, not the "close to home" variety in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Belgian troops move east from the Belgian Congo to occupy (in 1916) Ruanda-Urundi. The Germans thought the dispossession of their colonies was an injustice, and reiterated their economic need of the colonies, and their duty to civilize the backward races. The Herero hoped for negotiations, but a colonial army arrived instead. Prior to colonization, Hutu peoples were typically farmers, while Tutsis were cattle herders. The main goal of the Germans in Namibia was to provide a Lebensraum for its people; more territory that a state believes is needed for its natural development. In some places throughout Africa, the colonial state only needed to provide seeds of encouragement as commercial agriculture was already well established.  The Germans hoped to exploit the natural resources of the region and provide their country with a new market for manufactured goods; Kamerun was never considered to be a settler colony, as the climate was too hostile. The Germans forced many Herero into a war they did not want.  These ‘local compromises’, as they may be called, had common characteristics. Cotton production in German East Africa was administered in a much different manner than in other areas of the continent. German urban areas were overcrowded because of a recent population boom, the poor became people without space to operate in. Germany decided to create a colony in East Africa under the leadership of Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarckin February 1885. It was a mixture of nationalism, militarism, and racism that prompted Kaiser Wilhelm II to send a large army to crush the Herero. Countries conquered become colonies, all of the main officials … The extent of the forest prevented the coastal groups from uniting with the Grassfields peoples to stem the German tide. After the war the League of Nations confirms the existing state of affairs, granting Belgium in 1924 a mandate to administer the colony. Much like the adventurers who had traveled to Asia and North America, many European explorers set out to determine the physical makeup of the African continent. Brandenburg — after 1701, the Kingdom of Prussia — pursued these colonial efforts until 1721, when Arguin was captured by the French and the Gold Coast settlements were sold to the Dutch Republic. They were invaded and largely occupied by the colonial forces of the Allied Powers during World War I, and in 1919 were transferred from German control by the League of Nations and divided between Belgium, France, Portugal, South Africa and the United Kingdom. German colonies comprised territory that makes up 22 countries today, mostly in Africa, including Nigeria, Ghana, and Uganda.  Once the protectorate was officially declared, the German military was purposely slow to enlist locals as soldiers lest they acquire too great a proficiency with guns and turn those guns on the whites. The German consul, Gustav Nachtigal, declared Kamerun a protectorate of Germany on July 12, 1884. The history of Namibia has passed through several distinct stages from being colonised in the late nineteenth century to Namibia's independence on 21 March 1990.. From 1884, Namibia was a German colony: German South West Africa.After the First World War, the League of Nations Mandated South Africa to administer the territory.  After the Germans pushed the Herero deeper and deeper into the Kalahari, they created a wall of guard posts to seal them off.  To establish official control of the rest of the region, Germany signed treaties with Great Britain.  Germany had recently unified in 1871 and the rapid industrialization of their society required a steady stream of raw materials. 4 Answers. Britain, Germany didn't have enough of a navy to support overseas colonies, but had an army that was more than willing to annex adjacent territories. The Congo was under King Leopold II’s rule (eventually Belgian) and Senegal, Cameroon, and several other colonies in the western Sudan and Central Africa were gained by France. Over a century and a half later, the unified German Empire had emerged as a major world power. The 1880s mark the beginning of the colonial period in African history. 0 … The boldest among them argued that South-West Africa …  After the German navy cemented their control over the Kamerun coast, and further troop landings were made, the Germans were more inclined to move inland. The Germans encircled the Herero but left one part open for them to escape into the Kalahari, expecting them to die of starvation and thirst. These were colonies unsuccessfully settled by Brandenburg-Prussia (part of the Holy Roman Empire realm), after 1701 Kingdom of Prussia, before the foundation of the German Empire in 1871.. Africa. Yes, but the precise answer to this depends on how you define “Germany’ and also ‘colonize’. As imperial Germany began creating an overseas empire in the late 19th century, many influential Germans sought to emulate the example of Great Britain, which had built its large and powerful empire in part by promoting the settlement of immigrants from the British Isles to British-controlled territories in other parts of the world, including East Africa and South Africa. By Faith Barasa on March 12 2019 in Society. Moreover, Bismarck was suspect of France and Great Britain’s true intentions in Africa and this only furthered his desire to create an East African colony. There were almost no free Herero people after the establishment of the concentration camps; slave labor became part of the colonial economy. Germany was severely weakened by the Treaty of Versailles but attempted everything to regain their overseas empire. The Lord Humungus. However, the map shows Namibia.  Moreover, the imposition of tax in 1898 initiated the transition to the second phase of administration whose chief characteristic was the collapse of the compromises made earlier in the decade. The primary reason for European colonization of Africa was capitalism.  The army in the protectorate remained small because its major task was to suppress scattered African rebellions, not to ward off other Europeans. The six principal colonies of German Africa, along with native kingdoms and polities, were the legal precedents for the modern states of Burundi, Cameroon, Namibia, Rwanda, Tanzania and Togo. However, due to the fact that European powers were disproportionately aided by the products of the industrial revolution, many former empires and kingdoms that had been present in Africa were at a disadvantage and lost to the colonizers. Originally, the Germans used negotiation and bargaining tactics with the Herero for land. The ultimate goal of Europeans was to establish a market economy and that was done by compelling Africans into a labor pool. However, from certain parts of southern Spain you can actually SEE Moroccan, north African land with your naked eye, yet the Spaniards never really tried to colonize that part of the world. Together these four territories constituted Germany's African presence in the age of New Imperialism. Define direct rule. The second king of Belgium, Leopold II, was a very ambitious man who wanted to personally enrich himself and enhance his country’s prestige by annexing and colonizing lands in Africa. This exploration led initially to the establishment of th… The fact that many countries in Africa still experience high levels of poverty today, often despite the country’s natural riches, is used as proof by many that the colonialization of Africa did more harm than good. Soon after the agreement to create an East African colony was reached, the German Kaiser granted imperial protection to the possessions of the German East African Company, which had autonomy in the region. After the conquest of African decentralized and centralized states, the European powers set about establishing colonial state systems. The prospect of a colony in East Africa was too much to ignore; it was perfect for the continued economic stability and growth of Germany. Germany lost control of its colonial empire at the beginning of World War I when its colonies were seized by its enemies in the first weeks of the war. This lack of attention in schools implies that this is not an important period in German history. Throughout the colonial period, the societies that had been established in Africa fought hard to fend off their European colonizers.  However, this was a lie and the Herero that were rounded up were sent to concentration camps. Prior to the wave of European colonization, the geography of Africa was generally misunderstood. To a smaller extent, Germany and Italy had, too. Settlements in modern Guinea and Nigeria's Ondo State failed within a year; those in Cameroon, Namibia, Tanzania and Togo quickly grew into lucrative colonies.  The Germans put forward two proposals for colonial settlement: first, that a special committee, who would at least hear Germany’s side of the issue, handle the matter; and second, that Germany be allowed to administer her former colonies. why did Germany colonize Rwanda? By the …  A slow and cautious interest in Kamerun had been growing among German businessmen for thirty years before the finalization of Kamerun as a protectorate. At the height of colonization, only three sections of the continent had been untouched by European settlers: In the years 1884 and 1885, the Berlin Conference formalized European colonization of Africa.  However, this was quickly discovered to be inefficient as many of these firms went bankrupt because of mismanagement and African resistance. German frustration from their territories being stolen from them and the extensive amount of reparations they were forced to pay led directly to World War II. To a smaller extent, Germany and Italy had, too. After the first Germans were killed by the Herero, the Germans turned extreme and believed ethnic cleansing was necessary.  Warriors flocked to a few of the coastal towns and gave the Germans two days to leave. Answer Save. There were many reasons for the colonization of Africa, including economic, political, and religious motives. German East Africa, German Deutsch-Ostafrika, former dependency of imperial Germany, corresponding to present-day Rwanda and Burundi, the continental portion of Tanzania, and a small section of Mozambique.Penetration of the area was begun in 1884 by German commercial agents, and German claims were recognized by the other European powers in the period 1885–94. History classes do not give much attention to studying the colonial past of Germany. Many of the ideologies behind imperialism were discriminatory in nature, using racist beliefs to justify harsh authoritarian leadership styles. Gol(raw materials), Glory(more land ment more power), and God(convert people to Christianity) ... France, Portugal, Germany and Belgium. The following year gunboats were dispatched to East Africa to contest the Sultan of Zanzibar's claims of sovereignty over the mainland in what is today Tanzania. Many of the old African collaborators did not necessarily lose power in this second stage of German administration, but to survive they had to adapt themselves and often reorganize their societies.. Why did Europeans want to colonize Africa. Parts of contemporary Chad, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, the Central African Republic and the Republic of the Congo were also under the control of German Africa at various points during its existence. By 1900 much of Africa had been colonized by seven European powers—Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy. Germany had recently unified in 1871 and the rapid industrialization of their society required a steady stream of raw materials.  The Togolanders were beyond thankful to be freed from German rule, this conflicted with the previously-held contention among many European imperialists that Togoland was a model colony. These troops were all that stood between the meagre German administration and the African population. In the years 1884 and 1885, the Berlin Conference formalized European colonization of Africa. This also feeds the general opinion that German colonial history was only a short perio… European powers noticed that many of these raw materials happened to be abundant in Africa. While Togoland might have appeared to be "model" to Europeans, Togolanders endured a regime characterized by the aforementioned labor and taxation policies, harsh punishments inflicted by German district officers, grossly inadequate health care and education systems, and prohibition from many commercial activities.  The ‘cotton gospel’ was received less enthusiastically in Tanganyika than it was in British Uganda. The population of Rwanda is primarily made up of two ethnic groups, the Tutsi and the Hutu. Never really deployed at forts, the troops were first grouped into three expeditionary companies, who were marched from place to place to suppress revolts. Some saw Germany's behavior in South-West Africa as a precursor of German actions in the Holocaust. The German colony rented slaves to private companies, but some companies were so big that they ran their own concentration camps. These practices were completely at odds with the German and overall European belief that they were superior to Africans and the Germans resented it.  Overall, the camps in Namibia provided the blueprint for death camps of 20th century, that Nazi Germany used. South Western Africa was a German colony from 1884 until 1915. German Desires for Tanganyika and Early Expansion, The consolidation of German rule in Tanganyika, Two broad phases of district administration, German South West Africa and the Herero and Nama Genocide, Laumann, Dennis. By 1898, the Germans controlled all of Tanganyika’s main population centers and lines of communication. Before that time, what is twenty-first-century Italy consisted of several independent kingdoms. Key Terms The formation of impressive rail networks and telegraph systems further supported this opinion. The Colonization of Africa was due to a wide range of factors, not only economic and political but also for social, religious, humanitarian and technological reasons, which differed from country to country. But Denmark didn't have the means or the appetite for greater colonial expansion. German South West Africa, German Deutsch-Südwestafrika, a former German colony (1884–1919) that is now the nation of Namibia, in southwestern Africa.In 1883 Franz Adolf Lüderitz, a merchant from Bremen, Germany, established a trading post in southwest Africa at Angra Pequena, which he renamed Lüderitzbucht.He also acquired the adjacent coastal area, which he named Lüderitzland. Throughout this time, Africa was forever changed.  Great Britain and France had made secret arrangements splitting German territory and the Treaty of Versailles only cemented what had already taken place. The Germans believed this behavior was entirely acceptable, there was an official sanctioning of genocide. Omar Mukhtar: Omar Mukhtar was born to a noble clan in Zanzur, and after his father died, he was adopted by Sharif El Gariani. Denmark (and Norway, which was at that time part of Denmark) did colonize a small part of East Africa (called the "Danish Gold Coast," today known as Ghana). Ubahake, not unlike European feudalism, led to a class-dominated system instilling the Tutsis as a privileged minority and Hutus as the working clas…  Negotiation was not an option and the Herero did not see any of this coming; they believed the earlier disputes had been resolved; the Herero moved as far away as possible from the German settlements to try and survive. Again, much like the ideals behind the colonialism of the Americas, many European colonizers thought that they were doing a favor to those living on the African continent by introducing to them the European way of life, even if it came at the cost of destroying established societies. The Germans offered political and military support for their allies in exchange for the recognition of German authority, provision of labor and building materials, and the use of diplomacy instead of force in settling issues. When Germany invades Belgium, at the start of World War I, the Belgians retaliate in a smaller way in central Africa. Spaniards colonized huge parts of South America and as a result most people on the continent speak Spanish today, and the cultures there take a lot from Spanish culture. Germany decided to create a colony in East Africa under the leadership of Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in February 1885. South Africa, which was a British colony, occupied Walvis Bay in 1878, and the rest of Namibia in 1915.  After World War I, Germany did not just lose territory but lost commercial footholds, spheres of influence, and imperialistic ambitions of continued expansion. What countries did Italy colonize in Africa? All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com, Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US, The 10 Biggest Shopping Malls In The World.  Further inland, administration grew outwards from strategic garrisons but was transferred to civilian hands more slowly. 6 years ago. After the conquest of African decentralized and centralized states, the European powers set about establishing colonial state systems. Suddenly, the barter economy was replaced by a money economy..  This tension between the Allied and German governments over German colonies lasted until the outbreak of World War II. Lv 7. It is sparsely mentioned in history books. By 1900, when the force of the quick colonization was over, the majority of the land in Africa was divided up amongst seven different European colonizing nations: Britain, France, Spain, … However, in order to accomplish these advancements, they needed a source of constant raw material supply. Because all the good parts of Africa were already taken. The forest aided the Africans in discouraging whites from extending trade activities beyond the coast. The Allies rejected the proposals because the native inhabitants of the German colonies were strongly opposed to being brought under their control again.  The Germans realized that Namibia would be perfect for this, and ethnic cleansing was necessary to create the Lebensraum. The Germans were aided by the severe ethnic and political fragmentation of the inland groups. German planners anticipated that the fate of their African empire would be settled, if necessary, by wars in Europe, not in Africa itself. The district officer exercised full jurisdiction over ‘natives’, for although legislation specified the punishments he might impose, nothing defined the offences for which he might impose them. However, at the start of the First World War, the combined forces of the British and the French invaded the colony and the Germans capitulated, after only a few skirmishes, on 26 August 1914. The Germans also started to treat the Herero harshly, started minor instances of conflict with them, and raped their women; the Herero became convinced that resistance was the only way to combat this. Five years later, a treaty with the king of Arguin in Mauritania established a protectorate over that island, and Brandenburg occupied an abandoned fort originally constructed there by Portugal. Section three discusses Germany’s role in the European “scramble for Africa” and such developments as the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1884 and the 1884−85 Congress of Berlin. During a period lasting from 1881 to 1914 in what was known as the Scramble for Africa, several European nations took control over areas of the African continent. The Herero were beaten, overworked, and starved to death by the army of the Second Reich, this became the first genocide of the twentieth century. Africa’s diplomatic, strategic and material potential led European Powers to seize the opportunity to exploit a new continent. The exploitative nature of the German regime swept the natives of Kamerun into a changed world. The idea of separating people out from typical society and killing them as quick as possibly was probably born on Shark Island. Resisting made the percentage of survival much less for Africans and brutality became synonymous with German imperialism in Africa. In the 1890’s their aims were military security and political control; to achieve this the Germans used a mixture of violence and alliances with African leaders. In 1865 he succeeded his father, Leopold I, to the Belgian throne. The German colonization of Africa took place during two distinct periods. Life for the African people during colonization was difficult. Belgium itself had gained independence in 1831 when it broke away from the Netherlands and became a new nation. By 1900 a significant part of Africa had been colonized by mainly seven European powers—Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy. By European standards, Italy is a young country, having become unified as one nation only in 1861.  Most companies eventually gave way to governmental authority by the beginning of the 1920s, but the German colonial empire had already collapsed by that point. This was done either by bargaining with African leaders or through warfare. Nevertheless, the German interest in the interior continued, heightened by favorable reports from travelers such as Heinrich Barth in the 1850's; Gerhard Rohlfs in the 1860’s; and Gustav Nachtigal, from 1869 to 1873. The geographical limitations of Europe were also a factor. Berlin Conference Tasks The initial task of the conference was to agree that the Congo River and Niger River mouths and basins would be considered neutral and open to trade. Much like what occurred in North and South America, European colonizers brought the Christian faith to Africa through missionaries. Well, in 1990 the German colony of South Western Africa became announced to be called Namibia. “A Historiography of German Togoland, or the Rise and Fall of a ‘Model Colony.’”, Bildungskanal. German officials understood that their people needed space to grow and prosper; the Germans faced a choice of decline through lack of space and loss of population (as many had already left for America), or expanding into new lands.  Resistance was seen all over German controlled Africa, but the German soldiers and officers came from the best army in the world, so the action of rebelling didn’t have much of a long-term impact. In fact, European countries competed with one another to see who could attain the most power and growth.  In a way, this support by the German government completely changed the power and influence the German East African Company had. Before the Treaty of Versailles was even signed, Great Britain, France, and Japan had total control over the German colonies since 1915, except for East Africa.  By 1914, Tanganyika was divided into 22 administrative districts, and only two of them were still ruled by soldiers. A key ideology behind imperialism, which in turn informs colonialism, is the idea of racial superiority or cultural superiority. “Namibia: Genocide and the Second Reich (BBC).”, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_colonization_of_Africa&oldid=1000276871, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 12:57. Orders from the capital may have taken months to reach remote districts and a remote station could expect a visit from a senior official only once a decade. Relevance. Moreover, Bismarck was suspect of France and Great Britain’s true intentions in Africa and this only furthered his desire to cr… Eventually, the main coastal towns, which were more settled, were converted into headquarters of administration districts, and civilian district officers were appointed.  The chief characteristic of German rule was the power and autonomy of the district officer; sheer lack of communication dictated this.
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